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Coping with Common Side Effects of Kidney Dialysis
(FEBRUARY 2014) While dialysis is a life-saving treatment for more than 400,000 Americans with end stage renal disease, it is often accompanied by side effects. Depending on the type of treatment – hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis – and severity of condition, a patient may require additional medical assistance or lifestyle changes to address one or more of the following.
Low Blood Pressure
Low blood pressure (also known as hypotension) is a common side effect of dialysis. It generally occurs when patients add too much fluid weight between treatments or when too much fluid is removed during dialysis. The best ways to limit the risks of dialysis-related low blood pressure are to follow fluid intake recommendations and avoid salty foods that can make you extra thirsty. If you feel nauseous or dizzy during a treatment, the dialysis machine can be adjusted for the right fluid removal level. If you take medication for high blood pressure, ask your doctor how and when you should take it while undergoing dialysis.
Nausea and Vomiting
Patients can feel nauseous or experience vomiting for a number of reasons during and after dialysis treatments. First of all, these symptoms are commonly associated with kidney disease. Add low blood pressure and fluid weight gain to the mix and they are much more likely. Unfortunately, nausea and vomiting are sometimes uncomfortable enough to cause some patients to avoid further dialysis treatments. This just makes matters worse. Talk to your dialysis team about any such symptoms. They may be able to better regulate fluid removal levels and/or prescribe anti-nausea medication. You should also closely follow all guidelines provided by your dietician.
Dry or Itchy Skin
Many dialysis patients experience dry or itchy skin, a condition believed to be related to build ups of phosphorous and potassium in the body. Following your dietician’s guidelines should limit your intake of these minerals. She may also recommend taking a phosphorous binder before meals. When and if you develop dry or itchy skin, a combination of non-drying soaps and standard moisturizing lotions should help. Avoid fragranced lotions as they can make skin more sensitive. You should also avoid excessively hot showers as they can further dry out your skin.
Restless Leg Syndrome
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is another common side effect. People with RLS experience tingling, itchiness or discomfort in the legs or feet when relaxing or falling asleep. These sensations often cause the person to kick out or move their legs suddenly. Such motions usually relieve the discomfort but only temporarily. RLS is associated with conditions from kidney disease to vitamin B deficiency, so it’s important to see your doctor for a diagnosis. She may prescribe medications or home therapies such as massage, warm baths, compresses, exercise or relaxation techniques.
Dialysis patients sometimes experience uncomfortable or even painful muscle cramps, most frequently in the lower legs. While muscle cramps can result from numerous factors, it is often the quick loss of fluid from the body or excessive loss of overall fluid that triggers them during dialysis. Stretching the muscles or applying hot packs are usually enough to relieve pain within a few minutes. In some cases, however, a prescription medication may be necessary to treat recurring episodes.
With so many associated health conditions, it’s important for people undergoing dialysis to wear medical ID jewelry to alert first responders in the event of a medical emergency. Knowledge of your condition and the associated side effects will help them deliver the best possible care.